A Fresh Look at Skin to Skin, Netherlands

19 Nov 2015. InZwang - Bevallen presentation. More details (pdf)

Lain Back Breastfeeding Masterclass, Netherlands

20 Nov 2015.  More details (pdf).

Dear Friends of Biological Nurturing

Many of you requested repeated access to our first webinar series. The Foundations of Biological Nurturing.  We appreciate your comments. In this series, Advanced Biological Nurtuirng: Womb to World, for your convenience, if you miss the live sessions, you can view the live presentation from a secure website for as many times as you want for 2 weeks afterwards. More details


New Article

See Suzanne's article from USLCA "What Happens to Breastfeeding when mothers lie back". See article

Suzanne's New book

An introduction to Biological Nurturing - New Angles on Breastfeeding. More details



Biological Nurturing workshop training for health professionals is a new service offered by The Nurturing Project. More details.



Suzanne has produced a DVD that explains the mechanisms of biological nurturing and introduces baby reflex cues and some mother-led strategies. More details

Biological Nurturing Literature and Related Literature

Key Papers

Blass EM. & Teicher MH. (1980) Suckling. Science 210(3)15-22.

Christensson K. Cabrera T. Christensson E. Uvnas-Moberg K. & Winberg J. (1995) Separation and distress call in the human neonate in the absence of maternal body contact. Acta Paediatr. 84: 466-473.

Colson S. Does the mother’s posture have a protective role to play during skin-to-skin contact? (2014) Clinical Lactation. 5(2):41-50.

Colson S. Biological nurturing: The laid-back breastfeeding revolution. (2012) Midwifery Today Int Midwife. (101):9-11, 66.

Colson, S. (2010) An Introduction to Biological Nurturing, New Angles on Breastfeeding Hale Publishing Amrillo, Texas

Colson, S. (2010) What happens to breastfeeding when mother lie back? Clinical Lactation. Vol 1 Fall 2010 pp 11-14.

Colson, S., (2008) Biological Nurturing ~ Laid-back Breastfeeding [DVD] The Nurturing Project Hythe, Kent England

Colson SD. Meek J. & Hawdon JM. (2008) Optimal Positions triggering primitive neonatal reflexes stimulating breastfeeding Early Hum Dev. 84(7):441 – 449. on line at

Colson S. (2008) Bringing Nature to the Fore The Practising Midwife 11(10) 14-19.
Colson S. (2007a) Biological Nurturing, a non-prescriptive recipe for breastfeeding (1) The Practising Midwife. 10 (9): 42-8.

Colson S. (2007b) Biological Nurturing: The physiology of lactation revisited  (2) The Practising Midwife. 10 (10): 14-19.

Colson, SD (2006) The Mechanisms of Biological Nurturing Doctoral Thesis in Nursing and Midwifery Studies available from The British Library

Colson, S. (2005a) Maternal breastfeeding positions, have we got it right? (1) The Practising Midwife. 8 (10): 24-27.

Colson S. (2005b) Maternal breastfeeding positions, have we got it right? (2) The Practising Midwife. 8 (11): 29-32.

Colson S. DeRooy L. & Hawdon J. (2003) Biological nurturing increases breastfeeding duration. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest.13 (1): 92-97.

Colson S. (2003) White blood: dose benefits of human milk. The Practising Midwife.6 (10):11-13.

Colson S. (2002) Womb to world: a metabolic perspective. MidwiferyToday. 46 (1): 12-17.

Colson S. (2000) Biological suckling facilitates exclusive breastfeeding from birth a pilot study of twelve vulnerable infants. Dissertation submitted as Course requirement of MSc in Midwifery Studies. London: South Bank University.

De Rooy L. & Hawdon JM. (2002) Nutritional factors that affect the postnatal metabolic adaptation of full-term small and large for gestational age infants. Pediatrics. 109(42)[online]at

Gohil JR. (2006) Boxing neonate on an engorged breast, a new behavior identified. J Hum Lact; 23(3):268-9.

Matthiesen A.S. Ransjo-Arvidson A.B. Nissen E. & Uvnas-Mobert K. (2001) Postpartum maternal oxytocin release by newborns: effects of infant hand massage and sucking. Birth. 28 (1): 13-19.

Nissen E. Uvnas-Moberg K. Svensson K. Stock S. Widstrom A.M. & Winberg J. (1996) Different patterns of oxytocin, prolactin but not cortisol release during breastfeeding in women delivered by Caesarean section or by the vaginal route. Early Hum Dev. 45: 103-118.

McNabb M. & Colson S. (2000) From pregnancy to lactation: changing  relations between mother and baby/a biological perspective, in Alexander J., Roth C. and Levy V., (eds) Midwifery Practice Core Topics. 3: 51-65.

Moore ER, Anderson GC, Bergman N, Dowswell T. (2012) Early skin-to- skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 5:CD003519.

Pedersen CA. (1992) Oxytocin in maternal sexual and social behaviours Preface. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 652: IX-XI.

Righard L. &  Alade MO. (1990) Effects of delivery room routines on success of first feed.  The Lancet.  336: 1105-1107.
Righard L. & Frantz K. (1992) Delivery Self Attachment. [Videocassette]Geddes Productions 10546 McVine Sunland, California 91040 USA.

Schafer, R. & Watson-Genna, C. (2015) Physiologic Breastfeeding: A Contemporary Approach to Breastfeeding Initiation. J of Midwifery & Womens’ Health. 60 (5):546-53.

Uvnas-Moberg K. (1989) Physiological and psychological effects of oxytocin and prolactin in connection with motherhood with special reference to food intake and the endocrine system of the gut. Acta Physiol Scand 136 Supplementum 583: 41-48.

Uvnas-Moberg K. (1996) Neuroendocrinology of the Mother-Child Interaction. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 7(4)126-131.

Uvnas-Moberg K. (1997) Oxytocin linked antistress effects- the relaxation and growth response. Acta physiologica Scandinavia Supplementum. 38-42.

Uvnas-Moberg K.(1998) Antistress pattern induced by oxytocin. News Physiol. Sci. 13:22-26.

Varendi H. Porter RH. & Winberg J. (1994) Does the newborn baby find the nipple by smell?  The Lancet. 344: 989-990.

Widstrom AM. Wahlberg V. Matthiesen AS. Eneroth P. Uvnas-Moberg K. Werner S. & Winberg J. (1990) Short-term effects of early suckling and touch of the nipple on maternal behaviour. Early Hum Dev. 21 (3): 151-163.

Widstrom AM. Ransjo-Arvidson AB. Matthiesen AS. Winberg J. & Uvnas-Moberg K. (1987) Gastric suction in healthy newborn infants. Acta Paediat Scand. 76: 566-572.

Winberg J. (1995) Examining breast feeding performance: forgotten influencing factors. Acta Paediatr . 84: 465-467.

Wolff PH. (1959) Observations on newborn Infants. Psychosomatic Medicine 21: 110-118.

Wolff PH. (1966) The causes, controls and organisation of behaviour in the neonate. Psychol Issues 5 Monogr 17(1).

Mainstream literature

Gunther M. (1955) Instinct and the nursing couple.  Lancet. 265(6864):575-8.

Gunther M. (1973) Infant Feeding. (Revised Edition) Harmondsworth, Middlesex England: Penguin Books. 
Inch S. Law S. & Wallace L. (2003) Hands off! the breastfeeding best start project (1). The Practising Midwife. 6 (10): 17-19.

Ingram J. Johnson D. & Greenwood R. (2002) Breastfeeding in Bristol: teaching good positioning and support from fathers and families. Midwifery. 18 (2): 87-101.

Lee E. & Furedi F. (2005) Mothers’ Experience of and Attitudes to Using Infant Formula in the First Months. Canterbury: SSPSSR University of Kent.

Renfrew M. Dyson L. Wallace L. D’Souza L. McCormick  F. & Spiby H. (2005) The Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions to Promote the Duration of Breastfeeding Systematic review. (1st Edition) National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
(NICE) Mid City Place 71 High Holborn London WC1V 6NA.

Renfrew M. Fisher C. & Arms S. (2004) Bestfeeding: Getting Breastfeeding Right for You. (3rd Edition) Berkeley California: Celestial Arts.

Royal College of Midwives (2002) Successful Breastfeeding. (3rd Edition) London: Churchill Livingstone.

Weber F. Woolridge MW. & Baum JD.(1986) An ultrasonographic analysis of sucking and swallowing in newborn infants. Dev Med Child Nuerol. 28: 19-24.

Woolridge MW. (1986a) The ‘anatomy’ of infant sucking. Midwifery. 2, 164-171.

Woolridge M.W. (1986b) Aetiology of sore nipples. Midwifery. 2: 172-176.

World Health Organization (1997) Breast-feeding Management: a Modular Course. London: WHO/UNICEF

Primitive Neonatal Reflexes

Amiel-Tison C. & Grenier A. (1984) La Surveillance Neurologique au cours de la Première Année de la Vie. Paris: Masson.

André-Thomas Chesni Y. & Saint-Anne Dargassies S. (1960) The Neurological Examination of the Infant. London, UK: The Medical Advisory Committee of the National Spastic Society.

Brazelton TB. & Nugent JK. (1995) Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. (3rd Edition) London: Mac Keith Press.
Peiper A.(1963) (tr Nagler B. & Nagler H.) Cerebral Function in Infancy and Childhood. (3rd Edition) New York: Consultants Bureau.

Prechtl H. (1977) The Neurological Examination of the Full Term New Born Infant. (2nd Edition) Clinics in Developmental Medicine No 63. London: William Heinemann Books Ltd (Spastic International Medical Publications).

Dubowitz L. Dubowitz V. & Mercuri E. (1999) The Neurological Assessment of the Preterm and the Full term Newborn Infant.  Clinics in developmental medicine. Spastics International Medical Publications.  Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, No. 79

Literature suggesting equivocal or negative effects of teaching positioning and attachment skills

Cato K, Sylven SM, Skalkidou A, Rubertsson C. (2014) Experience of the first breastfeeding session in association with the use of the hands-on approach by healthcare professionals: A population-based Swedish study. Breastfeed Med. 9:294-300.

De Oliveira LD,  Giugliani ERJ. Santo LCDE. Cavalheiro M. Tamborindeguy F. Weigert EML. Kohler CVF. & De Lourenzi Bonilha AL. (2006) Effect of Intervention to Improve Breastfeeding Technique on the Frequency of Exclusive Breastfeeding and Lactation-Related Problems. J Hum Lact. 22(3):315-21.

Forster D.  McLachlan H. Lumley J. Bean C. & Waldenstrom U. Amir L. (2004) Two mid-pregnancy interventions to increase the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomized controlled trial. Birth. 31 (3): 176-182.

Henderson A. Stamp G. & Pincombe J. (2001) Postpartum positioning and attachment education for increasing breastfeeding: a randomized trial. Birth. 28 (4):236-242.

Labarere J. Bellin V. Fourny M. Gagnaire J-C. Francois P. & Pons J-C. (2003) Assessment of a structured in-hospital educational intervention addressing breastfeeding: a prospective randomized open trial. Br J Obstet Gynecol; 110:847-852.

McInnes RJ, Chambers JA. (2008) Supporting breastfeeding mothers: Qualitative synthesis. J Adv Nurs. 62(4):407-427.

Wallace LM. Dunn OM. Alder EM. Inch S. Hills RK. & Law SM. (2006) A randomized-controlled trial in England of a postnatal midwifery intervention on breastfeeding duration. Midwifery 22(3):262-73.

Weimers L, Svensson K, Dumas L, Naver L, Wahlberg V. (2006) Hands-on approach during breastfeeding support in a neonatal intensive care unit: A qualitative study of Swedish mothers’ experiences. Int Breastfeed J. 1:20.

UK Infant Feeding Surveys

Martin J. & Monk J. (1982) Infant feeding 1980. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. London: Social Survey Division: HMSO.

Martin J. & White A. (1987) Infant feeding 1985. Office of population Censuses and Surveys. London: Social Survey Division: HMSO.

White A. Freeth S. & O’Brien M. (1992) Infant feeding 1990. London:OPCS Social Survey Division HMSO.

Foster K. Lader. D. & Cheesbrough S. (1997) Infant Feeding 1995. Office for National Statistics. London: The Stationery Office.
Hamlyn B. Brooker S. Oleinikova K. & Wands S. (2002) Infant Feeding 2000. London:TSO.

Bolling K. Grant C. Hamlyn B. & Thornton K. (2007) Infant Feeding Survey 2005. London: The Information Centre. The Health & Social Care Information Centre.